January 18, Kansas:
Acting companies in London during the Renaissance were perennially in search of new plays. They usually paid on a piecework Literacy increased dramatically in the 15th century, to freelance writers.
Publishing as it is known today depends on a series of three major inventions—writing, paper, and printing—and one crucial social development—the spread of literacy. Before the invention of writing, perhaps by the Sumerians in the 4th millennium bc, information could be spread only by word of mouth, with all the accompanying limitations of place and time.
Writing was originally regarded not as a means of disseminating information but as a way to fix religious formulations or to secure codes of law, genealogies, and other socially important matters, which had previously been committed to memory.
Publishing could begin only after the monopoly of letters, often held by a priestly caste, had been broken, probably in connection with the development of the value of writing in commerce.
Scripts of various kinds came to be used throughout most of the ancient world for proclamations, correspondence, transactions, and records; but book production was confined largely to religious centres of learning, as it would be again later in medieval Europe.
Only in Hellenistic Greece, in Rome, and in China, where there were essentially nontheocratic societies, does there seem to have been any publishing in the modern sense—i. The invention of printing transformed the possibilities of the written word.
Printing seems to have been first invented in China in the 6th century ad in the form of block printing. An earlier version may have been developed at the beginning of the 1st millennium bc, but, if so, it soon fell into disuse.
The Chinese invented movable type in the 11th century ad but did not fully exploit it. Other Chinese inventions, including paper adwere passed on to Europe by the Arabs but not, it seems, printing.
The invention of printing in Europe is usually attributed to Johannes Gutenberg in Germany about —50, although block printing had been carried out from about In less than 50 years it had been carried through most of Europe, largely by German printers. Printing in Europe is inseparable from the Renaissance and Reformation.
It grew from the climate and needs of the first, and it fought in the battles of the second. It has been at the heart of the expanding intellectual movement of the past years. Although printing was thought of at first merely as a means of avoiding copying errors, its possibilities for mass-producing written matter soon became evident.
Infor instance, 18, letters of indulgence were printed at Barcelona. The market for books was still small, but literacy had spread beyond the clergy and had reached the emerging middle classes.
The church, the state, universities, reformers, and radicals were all quick to use the press. Freedom of the press was pursued and attacked for the next three centuries; but by the end of the 18th century a large measure of freedom had been won in western Europe and North Americaand a wide range of printed matter was in circulation.
The mechanization of printing in the 19th century and its further development in the 20th, which went hand in hand with increasing literacy and rising standards of education, finally brought the printed word to its powerful position as a means of influencing minds and, hence, societies.
The functions peculiar to the publisher—i. With increasing specialization, however, publishing became, certainly by the 19th century, an increasingly distinct occupation. Most modern Western publishers purchase printing services in the open market, solicit manuscripts from authors, and distribute their wares to purchasers through shops, mail order, or direct sales.
Published matter falls into two main categories, periodical and nonperiodical; i. Of the nonperiodical publications, books constitute by far the largest class; they are also, in one form or another, the oldest of all types of publication and go back to the earliest civilizations.
There is no wholly satisfactory definition of a book, as the word covers a variety of publications for example, some publications that appear periodically, such as The World Almanac and Book of Facts, may be considered books.
Though the boundary between them is not sharp—there are magazines devoted to news, and many newspapers have magazine features—their differences of format, tempo, and function are sufficiently marked: Both sprang up after the invention of printing, but both have shown a phenomenal rate of growth to meet the demand for quick information and regular entertainment.
Newspapers have long been by far the most widely read published matter; the democratizing process of the 19th and 20th centuries would be unthinkable without them.
There are, of course, many other types of publications besides books, newspapers, and magazines. In many cases the same principles of publishing apply, and it is only the nature of the product and the technicalities of its manufacture that are different.
There is, for instance, the important business of map and atlas publishing. Another important field is music publishing, which produces a great variety of material, from complete symphonic scores to sheet music of the latest popular hit.
A great deal of occasional publishing, of pamphlets and booklets, is done by organizations to further particular aims or to spread particular views; e.
This kind of publishing is sometimes subsidized. Book publishing The form, content, and provisions for making and distributing books have varied widely during their long history, but in general it may be said that a book is designed to serve as an instrument of communication.
The Babylonian clay tablet, the Egyptian papyrus roll, the medieval vellum codex, the printed paper volume, the microfilm, and various other combinations have served as books.
The great variety in form is matched by an equal variety in content. The book is also characterized by its use of writing or some other system of visual symbols such as pictures or musical notation to convey a meaning.
As a sophisticated medium of communication, it requires mastery of the hard-won skills of reading and writing.In the late seventeenth century, literacy played a far greater role in people's lives than it had in the late fifteenth century.
By it was central to economic, social and cultural life in north-western Europe. The Laity (3) The 12th century was a significant time in the expansion of literacy and literate usage. There is evidence that the kings of England from Henry I onward were instructed in Latin.
The Europeans - Why they left and why it matters Discussion Goals. To review the geopolitical realities of Europe in the Middle Ages.
To understand the political, social, and economic systems of feudalism and emerging mercantilism in 15th, 16th, and .
When did literacy start growing in Europe? The following visualization shows the spread of literacy in Europe since the 15th century, based on estimates from Buringh and Van Zanden () feelthefish.com it can be seen, the rising levels of education in Europe foreshadowed the emergence of modern societies.
The explosion of the print culture, which started in the 15th century with Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press, was both a result of and a cause of the increase in literacy.
The number of books published in the period of the Enlightenment increased dramatically due to the increase in demand for books, which resulted from the increased. St. Augustine FL, Movement — Photos. Saint Augustine is a small town of 15, on Florida's Atlantic coast, just south of Jacksonville and not far from the Georgia border.