Academic Journals in Nietzsche Studies 1. Taking this approach, however, risks confusing aspects of the Nietzsche legend with what is important in his philosophical work, and many commentators are rightly skeptical of readings derived primarily from biographical anecdotes. When young Friedrich was not quite five, his father died of a brain hemorrhage, leaving Franziska, Friedrich, a three-year old daughter, Elisabeth, and an infant son.
Notes and Fragments 1. His father worked as sexton in the local church. In his early youth, Heidegger was being prepared for the priesthood. In he went to the high school in Konstanz, where the church supported him with a scholarship, and then, inhe moved to Freiburg.
By his own account, it was this work that inspired his life-long quest for the meaning of being. Inafter completing the high school, he became a Jesuit novice, but was discharged within a month for reasons of health.
He then entered Freiburg University, where he studied theology. However, because of health problems and perhaps because of a lack of a strong spiritual vocation, Heidegger left the seminary in and broke off his training for the priesthood.
He took up studies in philosophy, mathematics, and natural sciences. It was also at that time that he first became influenced by Edmund Husserl. He studied Husserl's Logical Investigations.
In he completed a doctorate in philosophy with a dissertation on The Doctrine of Judgement in Psychologism under the direction of the neo-Kantian philosopher Heinrich Rickert.
He was conscripted into the army, but was discharged after two months because of health reasons. Hoping to take over the chair of Catholic philosophy at Freiburg, Heidegger now began to work on a habilitation thesis, the required qualification for teaching at the university.
He taught mostly courses in Aristotelian and scholastic philosophy, and regarded himself as standing in the service of the Catholic world-view. Nevertheless, his turn from theology to philosophy was soon to be followed by another turn.
InHeidegger became a junior colleague of Edmund Husserl when the latter joined the Freiburg faculty. The following year, he married Thea Elfride Petri, a Protestant student who had attended his courses since the fall of His career was again interrupted by military service in He served for the last ten months of the war, the last three of those in a meteorological unit on the western front.
His lectures on phenomenology and his creative interpretations of Aristotle would now earn him a wide acclaim. Inwith the support of Paul Natorp, Heidegger was appointed associate professor at Marburg University. Between andhe enjoyed there the most fruitful years of his entire teaching career.
His students testified to the originality of his insight and the intensity of his philosophical questioning.
Heidegger extended the scope of his lectures, and taught courses on the history of philosophy, time, logic, phenomenology, Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Kant, and Leibniz. However, he had published nothing sincea factor that threatened his future academic career.
Finally, in Februarypartly because of administrative pressure, his fundamental but also unfinished treatise, Being and Time, appeared. Within a few years, this book was recognized as a truly epoch-making work of 20th century philosophy.
Up to then virtually apolitical, Heidegger now became politically involved. On April 21,he was elected rector of the University of Freiburg by the faculty. He was apparently urged by his colleagues to become a candidate for this politically sensitive post, as he later claimed in an interview with Der Spiegel, to avoid the danger of a party functionary being appointed.
But he also seemed to believe that he could steer the Nazi movement in the right direction. There is little doubt that during that time, Heidegger placed the great prestige of his scholarly reputation at the service of National Socialism, and thus, willingly or not, contributed to its legitimization among his fellow Germans.Nietzsche saw nihilism as the outcome of repeated frustrations in the search for the meaning of religion.
He diagnosed nihilism as a latent presence within the very foundations of European culture and saw it as a necessary and approaching destiny. Friedrich Nietzsche (–) was a German philosopher and cultural critic who published intensively in the s and s.
He is famous for uncompromising criticisms of traditional European morality and religion, as well as of conventional philosophical ideas and social and political pieties associated with modernity. Martin Heidegger is widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20 th century, while remaining one of the most controversial.
His thinking has contributed to such diverse fields as phenomenology (Merleau-Ponty), existentialism (Sartre, Ortega y Gasset. Eternal return (also known as eternal recurrence) is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.
The theory is found in Indian philosophy and in ancient Egypt and was subsequently taken up by the Pythagoreans and Stoics. Friedrich Nietzsche (—) Nietzsche was a German philosopher, essayist, and cultural critic. His writings on truth, morality, language, aesthetics, cultural theory, history, nihilism, power, consciousness, and the meaning of existence have exerted an enormous influence on Western philosophy and intellectual history.
Nietzsche spoke of "the death of God," and foresaw the dissolution of.