Many of those involved also had religious preferences concerning how the established church should be organized—for example, with or without bishopsand whether its style of worship would be more or less liturgical. Some of those involved advocated religious freedom, and separation of church from the state, especially the Puritans and some Congregationalists. One result of the wars would be limited religious liberty, but the main legacy was the affirmation of the rights of Parliament—which laid the foundation for the eventual emergence of democratic government by the end of the nineteenth century.
Results of the campaign of Introduction A prolonged two-front war was a nightmare scenario for German military strategists in Yet policies formulated by Bismarck in the s ensured that Germany did face threats on both its eastern and western frontiers. Bismarck's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War in created a France that seemed incorrigibly hostile, at least to German policymakers.
In addition, his alliance with Austria-Hungary in ultimately led to a hostile Russia and thus to the Franco-Russian alliance.
This essay examines why Germany adopted and kept these policies and also details what results they had in military campaign of The Austro-German alliance While in opposition, Bismarck noted that Prussia's alliance with Austria, "Bound our spruce and seaworthy frigate to the wormy old warship of Austria.
Defeated in the Austro-Prussian War ofthe Austrians were forced to acknowledge Hungarian autonomy inwhen the country's name was officially changed to Austria-Hungary. The unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in made Bismarck chancellor and chief policy arbitrator for all Germany.
An alliance with Russia was thus an affair of the heart. But when Russia was humbled in the Eastern Crisis ofthe practical value of such an alliance was reduced, in Bismarck's eyes at least. Adopting the same policy that he had denounced while in opposition, Bismarck negotiated a bilateral treaty of alliance with the Habsburg Empire in German Emperor Wilhelm I signed his chancellor's latest creation with great reluctance.
To Wilhelm, the tsar was an old friend while the Habsburgs were a dynastic rival. The actual provisions of the treaty applied only in the event of an unprovoked Russian attack. But the treaty demonstrated that when push came to shove, Germany would choose Austria-Hungary over Russia.
The stage was thus set for the eventual break with Russia and for the Franco-Russian alliance. Choosing a weaker partner over a stronger one might seem self-defeating, but the Iron Chancellor had his reasons.
Doubters were told that the weakened Habsburg empire was in danger of collapse. If that occurred, the ethnic Germans of Austria-Hungary would asked to be annexed by Germany.
Bismarck certainly didn't want his Reich contaminated by any more of that, "putrid south German sentimentality," as he put it. After all, those putrid south Germans were likely to elect a Reichstag dominated by Liberals, Social Democrats, and Catholics -- all opponents of Bismarck's junker state.
Worse yet, the breakup of the Habsburg Empire would open what Bismarck referred to as the "insoluble problem" of Bohemia. German nationalists would be outraged if the large ethnic German minority in this region was left outside the Reich.
But growing German nationalism was already awakening a nationalistic backlash among Bohemia's Czech majority. The central question of Germany foreign policy in this period was, should Germans look west to liberal Britain or east to reactionary Russia? Committing to one or the other would necessarily alienate a segment of German society.
The alliance with Austria-Hungary had no such divisive consequences. It was a substitute for unification and thus a sop to the "Pan-German" nationalists on both sides of the border were who were never reconciled to Bismarck's Kleindeutchland small Germany.
Bismarck was perhaps a bit premature in anticipating Austria-Hungary's breakup in But bywith riots and police crackdowns mounting, the view that the Habsburg Empire was on the the verge of disintegration was a widely held one. The empire now had seven major separatist movements.
The two dominant nationalities, the Germans 23 percent and the Magyars 19 percent were together only a minority of Austria-Hungary's population -- and even these two favored nationalities toyed with separatism. The imperial diet was scene of chaotic demonstrations and debilitating national rivalries.
The government routinely resorted to rule by decree, in theory an emergency procedure. Only the Poles in Galicia remained the emperor's loyal subjects, since for them the alternative to Habsburg rule was Russian rule.
If an independent Poland was carved out of the Russian Empire, the ethnic Poles of eastern Germany would agitate to join such a state.
Russia's population, already Europe's largest at the beginning of the 19th century, expanded dramatically from 70 million in to million in Although still overwhelmingly rural, Russia experienced a rapid industrialization starting around Byits iron and steel production was half that of Britain's.
Russia's self-image as a champion of the Slavs and her longstanding ambition to control the outlet of the Black Sea brought her into conflict with Austria-Hungary. Thus, the Austro-German alliance inevitably led to a rift between Germany and Russia.During the American Civil War, music played a prominent role on both sides of the conflict: Union and feelthefish.com the American Civil War battlefield, different instruments including bugles, drums, and fifes were played to issue marching orders or sometimes simply to boost the morale of one's fellow soldiers.
Singing was also employed not only as a recreational activity but as a release from. This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the antiwar movement, with a separate section on protest songs. The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons.
Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in , would have ended with the public execution of Charles. April marks the th anniversary of the U.S. Civil War, which began when Confederate forces opened fire upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina.
The American Civil War – which tore the nation apart from – has innumerable causes. This essay, written by one of the experienced Ultius writers, reflects on the great battles of the war, highlighting how intense regionalism perpetuated the ongoing fight..
Causative Factors of the American Civil War/5(3). Introduction. A prolonged two-front war was a nightmare scenario for German military strategists in Yet policies formulated by Bismarck in the s ensured that Germany did face threats on both its eastern and western frontiers.